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新课标高中英语词汇教学

江西省电子游戏官网  朱秀珍

(333300 zhuxiouzhen_lpzc@126.com 13576410708)

    摘要  本文初步探讨了高中英语词汇教学过程中存在的问题。主要是学生在学习英语词汇时存在死记硬背、缺乏及时的复习和巩固以至学以致用的问题,而教师在词汇的教学中存在要么过于重视,只顾数量,要么过于依靠学生自主学习,以及讲解过深等问题,另外针对这些问题,笔者根据自己多年的教学经验提出了自己的解决方法。这就是:1.采用不同的方式指导学生认知和记忆单词; 2.抓住重点词汇,进行精讲精练;3.及时帮助学生复习和掌握词汇; 4.提高学生学习英语兴趣,扩充学生的词汇量。本人根据这些方法还进行了有关教学安案例的设计。

      关键词  高中   英语   词汇    教学

  英语词汇是语言的基本要素,语言是词汇的载体,离开了词汇,语言就失去了实际意义。英国语言学家威尔金斯曾经说过,没有语法人们表达的事物寥寥无几,而没有词汇人们则无法表达任何事物。英语课程标准中明确提出了每一级学生应掌握的词汇及习惯用语在数量上和使用上的要求,(例如,目标八级中规定:学会使用3000个单词和400500个习惯用语或固定搭配;运用词汇理解和表达不同的功能、意图和态度;运用词汇描述复杂的事、行为和特征,说明概念等)。以上几点说明了词汇教学的重要性。高中阶段词汇教学是一个重点也是难点,不仅要使学生学习到规定数量的单词,而且要使学生掌握学习词汇和快速有效记忆单词的方法,培养学生根据语境式构词来猜测词义和理解句子的能力,培养学生在阅读时能准确地掌握同根词或多义词在文中的意思,并准确地理解文章,因此教师在教学过程中应特别注意和重视词汇的教学。根据本人多年的教学经验,笔者认为学生学习词汇和教师教词汇过程中主要有以下几个问题:

  1.学生孤零零地死记硬背词汇,一个单词不会发音,不会用音标来帮助记忆单词,也不会利用语境来理解和运用词汇,往往是以词汇为主,集中记忆、并且是靠一个字母一个字母记忆的方法来记忆词汇,转眼间忘了百分之七八十,发出感叹:英语单词真难记。

  2.学生不能及时地对所学的词汇进行复习和巩固。很多学生早读课期间好不容易背熟了一些词汇和词组,心里就很有成就感,当时的听写成绩也不错,就把它们放在一边置之不理,过了一段时间后所背词汇和词组又陌生了。

  3.学生不能正确熟练地运用词汇。英语词汇极其丰富,有许多的同音异义词、习惯用语,另外,一词多义和一词多性的现象也很突出,同时由于文化背景的差异性,学生孤立地死记硬背和用汉语的思维方式学习英语词汇等等都造成了学生即使能够认识某个词组,但要运用英语进行正确恰当的听说读写就很困难了,有位语言学家曾经说过,以什么样的形式储存,最后就会以什么样的形式输出。用汉语的思维方式学习英语词汇,就必然导致以汉语的思维方式去运用英语词汇从而使他们在听说读写的实践中无法正确运用所学英语词汇,也就无法学以致用。

  4.教师在词汇的教学过程中也存在不少的问题,有些教师对词汇教学不重视,完全依靠学生自己去摸索,自己去背,因为高考中纯粹考词汇的内容并不多。江西卷中纯粹的词汇题只能算对话填空,(其实并不完全是,该题还牵涉到语境和词的变形等。)而有些教师,特别是高三的教师过于重视词汇的积累,追求词汇量,希望以此来提高学生的高考成绩,要求学生机械地记忆词汇表,甚至是大学四六级词汇,这样,学生的词汇量可能比较大,但是在运用中还是会出现很大的障碍,阅读文章没有生词却不能准确理解,书面表达不能准确到位;还有些教师却又过于重视词汇,用过多的时间反复讲解词汇,有些词汇甚至讲解过深以至于学生面对一大堆笔记,背得头昏脑胀,却总是认为所背所学的词汇用处不大,很多学生错误地认为学习英语听不听讲都不重要了。

  综上所述,目前高中生在学习英语词汇时存在死记硬背、缺乏及时的复习和巩固以至学以致用的问题,而教师在词汇的教学中存在要么过于重视,只顾数量,要么过于依靠学生自主学习,以及讲解过深等问题,鉴于上述问题,笔者认为,新课标高中英语词汇教学应从以下几方面进行,借以提高英语词汇教学效率。

  1.采用不同的方式指导学生认知和记忆单词。在词汇教学过程中教师可以采取音形记忆法,结构分析法,同义词反义词辨析法,词汇意义解释法,情境学习法等方式来帮助学生认知和记忆单词。

  比如音形记忆法,在教学过程中,教师从刚进入高一开始就应严格要求学生养成良好的发音习惯,为词汇学习打下扎实的基础,(建议语音音标中的元音,多指导学生学习),教师还应注意引导学生认真掌握字母或字母组合的发音规律,引导学生按语音记忆单词。

  又如在语境学习法中,要求学生将词汇与句子、语篇结合起来,因此在课堂教学中教师不应孤立地进行词汇教学,而应把词汇与句子、语境结合起来,多让学生自己造句,掌握词的用法。在词汇与句法相结合的基础上,将词汇与句子和语篇相结合,进一步扩大词汇的交流功能,每学完一篇课文后,应让学生默写或听写课文的段落,复述、背诵课文或进行相关的改写课文的练习,这样不仅能帮助学生巩固词汇,而且还能提高学生学习词汇的兴趣,发展他们运用语言的能力,达到学好英语的目的。

  2.抓住重点词汇,进行精讲精练。学生掌握和记忆了一定词汇之后,教师在教学过程中应注意重点词汇的教学,在新课标的词汇教学中教师不可能也不必要对所有考纲和课标的词汇都一视同仁地进行教学,新课标新考纲要求掌握的词汇是必须要记忆的,但教材中有些词汇超出了考纲要求,应明确告诉学生只要认知就行,而在教学过程中最重要的词汇就是动词的教学,动词的教学牵涉到它的及物、不及物,及物动词带动名词还是动词不定式做宾语或宾补以及不及物动词后带的介词和副词词组,很多学生根本就不知道及物与不及物动词的区别,在教学过程中对于这些词汇就应反复讲解,不断地练习,其次一个重点就是介词、副词的用法,这些词汇的教学应该与动词和形容词相结合来进行,掌握这些词汇对于高考中的阅读和完形填空的水平提高非常快。

  3.及时帮助学生复习和掌握词汇。学习记住词汇、掌握了重点词汇的运用以后,另外一个主要的问题就是遗忘。词汇学习重复的次数和词汇学习的效果有直接的关系,一般说来,重复的次数越多,记忆越牢固,然而,有些学生习惯突击性地进行词汇学习,缺少必要的复习与巩固,无法持之以恒,导致他们所记忆的词汇具有暂时性,而缺乏长期性,使他们不能很好地运用所学词汇。为了帮助学生解决遗忘问题,可以采取多种形式,笔者主要是采取集中学习词汇、融入课文复习、听写单词、翻译课文中的重点词组和句子、背诵课文、默写课文段落,一个单元学完后,又再次听写词汇,反复一周之后放掉,但在月考前或期中考试时又加以复习,这样不断反复地帮助学生记忆、巩固和运用已学词汇。

  4.提高学生学习英语兴趣,扩充学生的词汇量。学生学习英语只是枯燥地记忆、理解词汇、反复不断地听写,如果不注意,往往会导致他们厌学的情绪,针对以上问题,笔者采取多种方法来提高他们的学习兴趣,积极指导学生阅读英语报刊杂志、收听英语广播电视、观看英语电影等,提高学生的学习兴趣和增强学生对富有时代气息的新鲜词汇的理解,增强学生对语言学习的敏感性和感悟力。每周布置学生借阅mg电子游戏娱乐或自己买的Teens中的二篇文章,或带学生看英语电影,如学完《百万英磅》后利用晚自习的时间带学生看《百万英磅》的电影,并挑出报刊或电影中的一些新的原汁原味的词汇和句子进行讲解学习,与学生一起巩固,这样不仅使学生记忆了词汇,开拓视野,同时也激发了学生学习英语的兴趣,真正使要我学变成我要学,还可以克服英语教学中孤立教词汇,接触少、重复率低等问题,同时还是词汇的意义和用法的教学、词汇的语音和拼写的教学紧密相结合从而调动学生学习英语的积极性。

  总之高中英语词汇教学最重要的是老师要充分考虑学生的实际,采用适当的教学方法,吸引学生学习英语的兴趣,帮助学生获得学习词汇的方法,培养学生自觉能力,真正理解、记忆、运用词汇进行语言交际和语言运用。词汇教学不只是意思的展示或用法的讲解,更重要的是词汇的运用,只有通过运用,学生才有可能掌握词汇。进而提高他们的学习积极性和主动性,使其成为真正的学习主体。

 

    新课标词汇教学案例 必修二 Unit 1(人教版)

         Learning about important words and expression

                    整体设计

   教材分析: This is the second teaching period of this unit. The emphasis of this period will be placed on the important new words and expressions in Warming up and Reading. In order to make students understand these important words and expressions thoroughly, I will first get the students to understand their meanings in the context, then give some explanations about them and later, offer some exercises to make the students master their usages.

   三维目标:

   知识目标:Get students to learn and grasp the important new words and expressions in this unit

   能力目标:Get students to use some useful new words and expressions correctly.

             Teach students how to use the dictionary

   情感目标:Stimulate students interest in learning English

   教学目的和要求:要求学生掌握以下词汇

rare,valuable,survie,vase,dynasty,amaze,amazing,select,honey,design,

fancy,style,decorate,jewel,artist,belong,troop,reception,remove,wooden,

doubt,former,worth,local,apart,painting,castle,trial,evidence,explode,

entrance,sailor,sink,maid,informal,debate,in search of,belong to,in return,at war,less than,take part,think highly of.

  教学难点和重点:survive, design,fancy,remove,doubt,worth,in search of, belong to, take part,think highly of等词和词组的用法。

  教学方法:讲、练相结合

  教学手段:单词的录音,小活动黑板(也可以用课件,但mg电子游戏摆脱破解多媒体没有进入教室,很难实际运用)

                      教学过程:

Step I1.Check the homework

       2.通过复述Reading部分的整体阅读,指导学生找出所要讲的      重点词汇survive, design,fancy,remove,doubt,worth,in search of, belong to, take part,think highly of

Step II:vocabulary study

   1. In search of---to search for寻找,搜寻

   eg: They are in search of a book=They are searching for a book

In one's search for ---during the period of searching在搜寻中

   eg: They found a coal mine in their search for a missing boy

拓展:search sb/sth for sth,......地方寻找、搜寻-----search in some place for

Search for sb/sth 寻找、搜寻----look for

Search me-----I don't know 我不知道

1. design、(u/c)-----the way that sth is made.

The design of    .....的设计

make a design for   .......设计

by  design-----on purpose故意地

It  is  designed  for/be meant for sth/be intended for 

 eg: The room is designed for you

2. fancy(adj)/expensive昂贵的

   eg: A fancy private school

 with a lot of decroations花哨的

   eg: Fancy goods

intended to seem impressive夸夸其谈的

   eg: Fancy words

(c/u)  imagination or sth that you imagine喜欢,想像

Take a fancy to sb/sth喜欢

Catch one's fancy 吸引..........,    fancy dress party化装舞会

(vt) want to have or do sth想要,喜欢

Fancy doing

Fancy sb to do sth

Fancy you knowing my sister想到........

3. decoratevt--make sth more beautiful by putting sth nice on it 装饰

   eg: Decorate the room with flowers.

      The room is decorated with flowers.

--give sb a medal授予勋章

  eg: Decorate sb for their bravery.

Decoration (c/u):beautiful decorations

Decorative (adj)装饰的。

4. in return----as a payment or in exchange for sth 作为....的报答

   eg: What can we do in return for your kindness

--on/upon one's return 一回来就.......

   eg: On her return to Englandshe published an account of her travel

--many happy returns祝你长命百岁

5. remove -- take sth/sb away from 搬走,带走

   eg: Remove the desk from the room

--take off clothing脱掉衣服.....

   eg: He removed his jacket

--get rid of a problem去除.排除(困难等)

   eg: Remove difficulties

--take away sb's power/position解除(权力,职务)

   eg: They were removed from office

--removedadj--different

   eg: Their culture is far removed from ours

6. doubt(u)---a feeling of not being certain.

   eg: There is no doubt that he will come.

      Do you have any doubt that he will come .

      There is some doubt whether he will come.

(要求学生注意连词的用法)

Be in doubt.拿不准,没有把握。

(v)--think that sth is probably not true.

   eg: I don't doubt that he will come.

      Do you doubt that he will come.

      I doubt if /wether/when he will come.

7. worth(adj)---of value in money.

    eg: How much is the necklace worth?

       The building is worth a fortune.

       The book is worth reading(主动表示被动)=The book is worthy of being reading=the book is worthy to be read.

(u) an amount

    eg:ten pounds' worth of peanuts.价值十英磅的花生

       two days'worth of travel长达两天的旅行

8. apart.(adv)at a distance away from each other.

  eg:Stand with your feet apart.

     The two brothers were born two years apart.

Tell apart区分

  eg: I can't tell them apart.

Take apart打开

  eg: Don't take the radio apart

Apart from/besides/except.....之外

  eg: I hardly know anybody in the village apart from you

9. Belong to属于(无被动语态,无进行时)

  eg: He belongs to our school/team.

     The book belongs to me.

     That mouse belongs to the computer.

10. Think highly ofspeak highly of...看重,器重。

   Think little/nothing/much of......评价不高/

   eg: We think highly of our teacher

      Our teacher is highly thought of (让学生注意highly在主动和被动语态中的位置)

11. Survive(v)-escape,continue to live.

   eg: survive th fire/the crash在火灾/车祸中幸免于难。

live longer ...活得长

   eg:he survived his wife for 10 years.

manage to do.设法对付

  eg: I can't survive on my wage.

Survial (n),survivor(n),surviving(adj)

Step :consolidation.

1.课堂上回顾以上单词和词组的用法,采取听写的方法进行复习。In search of,design,fancy,decorate,in return,remove,doubt,worth,apart,belong to,think highly of,survive12个词或词组,老师说中文,学生写英文,并请两位同学上黑板听写,其他同学用课堂作业本写。

2.课堂作业。(写在活动小黑板上)

Words spelling:

(1).In the accident,only two people s_____at last.(survived)

(2)The building is specially d___for the homeless people.(designed)

(3)The f____in your room looks new at first sight.(furniture)

(4)Enough e____can help him lot in the court.(evidence)

(5)I have some ____(怀疑)wether they will come here on time.(doubt)

(6)He _____(移开)his trousers and I found the wound.(removed)

(7)The ____(奇特的)style attracted a large number of people(fancy)

(8)I was shown to the ____(接待)hall when Iarrived there.(reception)

(9)China is a developing country _____(属于)to the third country.(belongs)

(10)Scientists are in _____(寻找)of a cure for the disease.(search)

StepIV:Homework

一.Finish off all the exercises in page 3.

二.Finish the following exercises (已印好分发给学生)

1.He has given me so much help that I really want to do something for him____

A.in turn   B.by turns   C.in return    D.in answer

2.Some researchers believe that there is no doubt ____ a cure for AIDSwill be found.

A.which   B.what   c.that   D.whether

3.I____walking in such weather.

A.fancy    B.want    C.hope    D.Wish

4.After the traffic accident,no one____except a few people who were badly injured.

A.survive    B.survived    C.was survive   D.was surviving

5._____for us to discuss the problem again.It has been settled

A.It has no doubt  B.There has no doubt  C.It is no need  D.There is no need

6.Whom ____ the computer_____?

A.does,belong to  B.is,belonged to  C.is,belong to  D.is,belonging to

7.During the long-term cooperation,Mr li ____ a smart,honest and trustworthy man.

A.appeared   B.made   C.turned   D.proved

8.What surprised me was not what he said but ____he said it.

A.the way   B.in the way that  C.in the way   D.the way which

9.Visitors to the prison are thoroughly ____ before they are allowed in.

A.searched   B.searched for   C.in seach of   D.looked for

10.The lady said she would buy a gift for her daughter with the ____.

A.20 dollars remained   B.20 dollars to remain  C.remained 20 dollars   D.remaining 20 dollars.

11.The town's streets were never ____ for heavy traffic.

A.tested   B.designed   C.kept   D.used

12.Don't worry.Philip is quite used to ____ in such busy streets as this.

A.drive    B.be driving    C.have driven    D.driving

板书设计:

Important words and expression:

1.In search of.search sb/sp for sth.search for.search me.

2.Make a design for.It is designed/intended/meant for/to do.

By design.

3.A fancy school. Fancy goods.take a fancy to sb/sth.Fancy doing sth.Fancy sb to do.

4.Be decorated with.Decorate sb for sth.Decoration(n).

5.In return.On one's return.Many happy returns.

6.remove......from......,  removed......

7.There is no doubt that....,do you have any doubt that.....,I have doubt whether/if,I doubt whether....

8.Be worth (doing) sth.Be worthy of being done/be worthy to be done.Two days worth of travel.

9.Tell apart.Take apart.Apart from.

10.Belong to.

11.Think highly of .Speak highly of.Be highly thought of

12.Survive the fire.Survive sb.Survive on my wage.survivor.survival.surviving.

活动与探究

Teach the students how to look up words in the dictionary

Let the students finish the table and find who does it best.

单词

词性

中文意思

例句

rare

 

 

 

valuable

 

 

 

amaze

 

 

 

select

 

 

 

evidence

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

备课资料:

   DICTIONARY OF ACTIVE ENGLISH VERBS》(安徽教育出版社)

   LONGMAN DICTIONARY OF CONTEMPORARY ENGLISHLONGMAN

   《英语词语辨析词典》(中国书籍出版社)

参考书目:

刘道义.高中英语教师教学用书[M].北京:人民教育出版社, 2001.

王克谦:《英语的基本规律速成记忆法》[M]

曹务堂:《简明英语词汇学》[M]. 济南;山东教育出版社, 1996.

新课标英语教学大纲

 

 

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